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世界人文之路鼎新北科讲座系列第122讲

讲座题目:

古老语言和当代障碍之间的关联

The Connection Between Ancient Language and Contemporary Disabilities

讲座时间:20181030日星期二上午1000

讲座地点:外语楼315 (学术报告厅)

主讲人:

Jeffrey R. Gruen 医学博士,教授,耶鲁大学医学院儿科学、遗传学和的医学研究项目组

Professor, Pediatrics, Genetics, and the Investigative Medicine Program, Yale University School of Medicine

主讲人简介:

Gruen博士是耶鲁大学医学院儿科学、遗传学和医学研究项目教授。他也是儿科和新生医学专家,在耶鲁-纽黑文儿童医院新生儿重症监护病房担任主治医师已有30多年。Gruen博士在耶鲁儿童健康研究中心以及加拿大和中国的国际合作中的工作重点在阅读和语言的遗传学研究,包括阅读障碍、特异性语言损伤和语音障碍。他在国际知名的同行评议期刊上发表了80多篇论文,这些期刊包括《美国国家科学院报》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)、《自然神经科学》(Nature Neuroscience)、《美国人类遗传学杂志》(American Journal of Human Genetics)和PLoS OneGruen博士发现的DCDC2基因被《科学》杂志列为2005年最重要的5个科学发现之一。

Dr. Gruen is Professor of Pediatrics, Genetics, and the Investigative Medicine Program at the Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Gruen is also a specialist in Pediatrics and Neonatology, and has been an attending physician in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of The Children’s Hospital at Yale-New Haven for more than 30 years. The focus of Dr. Gruen’s research at the Yale Child Health Research Center, and through international collaborations in Canada and China, is on the genetics of reading and language, including dyslexia, specific language impairment, and speech sound disorder.  He has authored over 80 peer-review publications in highly regarded scientific journals including Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nature Neuroscience, American Journal of Human Genetics, and PLoS One.  Dr. Gruen’s discovery of the DCDC2 gene was cited as the 5th most important discovery of the Year 2005, by the journal, Science

 

讲座内容简介:

全球学习障碍的发生率在10%20%之间。到目前为止所发现的最常见的学习障碍是阅读障碍,也被称为诵读困难。在这次讲座中,Gruen博士将展示在世界各地使用的7000种语言中,语言特征的保留是如何通过不同人群中特有的基因变异形成的,以及现代基因组中可以发现的支持性证据。他将把古代人类迁徙的时间线与语言及阅读的发展进行对比,强调基因-环境相互作用对语言的重要性。他将讨论语言进化以及阅读技能如何依赖于基因变异,而这种基因变异塑造了口语,且可能与书面语言不一致。这些反映在当代不同语言文化下阅读障碍的高发病率中。

The worldwide prevalence of learning disabilities is between 10% and 20%.  By far the most common is reading disability, also known as dyslexia.  In this lecture, Dr. Gruen, will show how retention of linguistic features amongst the 7,000 languages spoken around the world were likely shaped by genetic variants endemic in different populations, and the supporting evidence that can be found in contemporary genomes.  He will contrast the timelines of ancient human migration with the development of language and reading, highlighting the importance of gene-environment interactions for language. He will discuss language evolution and how reading skills depend on gene variants that shaped spoken language and might be at odds with written language, and that is reflected in the high prevalence rates of reading disability in contemporary cultures.

 

 

 

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